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Educational Assessment

White coat for D'Youville College School of Pharmacy

Educational Assessment attempts to determine the importance and value of the education that Doctor of Pharmacy students receive.

Educational assessment involves the process of documenting students' knowledge, skills, attitudes, and beliefs in measurable terms to evaluate their learning. Assessment can focus on the individual learner, the learning community (a class, workshop, or other organized group of learners), the institution, or the educational system as a whole.

Programmatic Evaluation and Assessment

DYC SoP Programmatic Evaluation Plan - Approved April 6, 2016

DYC SoP Programmatic Evaluation Plan - Approved August 5, 2013

Assessment Grid AY2014-2015

Assessment Grid AY2013-2014

Assessment Grid AY2012-2013

Assessment Grid AY2011-2012

Assessment Grid AY2010-2011

Assessment Grid AY2009-2010


Educational Outcomes

Educational outcomes describe career and professional accomplishments that the program prepares graduates to achieve.

Students in P1 Level

For the PharmD program, the outcomes are as follows:

Domain 1: Foundational Knowledge

1.1 Learner (Learner) - Develop, integrate, and apply knowledge from the foundational sciences (i.e., pharmaceutical, social/behavioral/administrative, and clinical sciences) to evaluate the scientific literature, explain drug action, solve therapeutic problems, and advance population health and patient centered care.

1.1.1. Comprehend concepts of biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences;
1.1.2. Explain the application of the scientific method in drug discovery, research and practice;
1.1.3. Utilize concepts of biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences to design and evaluate patient-specific care plans that reduce side effects, increase adherence and improve therapeutic outcomes.

Domain 2: Essentials for Practice and Care

2.1. Patient-Centered Care (Caregiver)

Provide patient-centered care as the medication expert (collect and interpret evidence, prioritize, formulate assessments and recommendations, implement, monitor and adjust plans, and document activities).

2.1.1. Evaluate patient-specific and evidence-based pharmaceutical care plans;
2.1.2. Design a pharmaceutical care plan alone or in collaboration with other health care professionals, patients and/or their caregivers and defense of the plan based on best evidence;
2.1.3. Compile and review patient-specific data on a medication profile, performance of prospective drug use review with the introduction of a new medication to determine appropriateness, accurate preparation and dispensing of the medication, and documentation of the patient counseling encounter.

2.2. Medication Use Systems Management (Manager)

Manage patient healthcare needs using human, financial, technological, and physical resources to optimize the safety and efficacy of medication use systems.

2.2.1. Utilize management principles and health care resources in various health care settings to improve the therapeutic outcomes of medication use;
2.2.2. Evaluate and budget for pharmacy operations and personnel;
2.2.3. Optimize physical and technological resources to fulfill the practice mission;
2.2.4. Manage and support medication distribution and control systems;
2.2.5. Participate in the management of medication use systems.

2.3. Health and Wellness (Promoter)

Design prevention, intervention, and educational strategies for individuals and communities to manage chronic disease and improve health and wellness.

2.3.1. Develop and participate in wellness and disease prevention initiatives to improve health and reduce disparities in the delivery of healthcare;
2.3.2. Promote disease prevention and management across a continuum of care, and contribution to the development of rational and cost-effective health policy on a local, national and global level.
2.4. Population-based care (Provider)
Describe how population-based care influences patient centered care and influences the development of practice guidelines and evidence-based best practices.

2.4.1. Evaluate evidence-based disease management programs and protocols which are based upon analysis of epidemiologic and pharmacoeconomic data, medication use criteria, medication use review and risk reduction strategies;
2.4.2. Interpret population-specific data to assess the health needs of a community or population;
2.4.3. Utilize and select patient-specific data, population-specific data, quality assurance and research to optimize therapeutic outcomes and patient safety.

Domain 3: Approach to Practice and Care

3.1. Problem Solving (Problem Solver)

Identify problems; explore and prioritize potential strategies; and design, implement, and evaluate a viable solution.

3.1.1. Demonstrate a questioning attitude and justify therapeutic and practice decisions based on best research combined with clinical expertise and knowledge of patient and community needs and values; 
3.1.2. Demonstrate the ability to use critical inquiry to test ideas in familiar and unfamiliar circumstances;
3.1.3. Retrieve, interpret and challenge the professional, lay and scientific literature to make informed, rational and evidence-based decisions.

3.2. Educator (Educator)

Educate all audiences by determining the most effective and enduring ways to impart information and assess understanding.

3.2.1. Educate and validate patient, caregiver, and health care professional understanding.

3.3. Patient Advocacy (Advocate)

Assure that patients' best interests are represented.

3.3.1. Demonstrate and support a professional, caring and covenantal relationship with the patient; 
3.3.2. Encourage patients and caregivers to take responsibility of their own health care needs.

3.4. Interprofessional Collaboration (Collaborator)

Actively participate and engage as a healthcare team member by demonstrating mutual respect, understanding, and values to meet patient care needs.

3.4.1. Effectively collaborate with health care professionals, policymakers, administrative and support personnel to engender a team approach to patient-centered care.

3.5. Cultural Sensitivity (Includer)

Recognize social determinants of health to diminish disparities and inequities in access to quality care.

3.5.1. Select and tailor information to counsel and educate patients and caregivers from different cultures in a caring and respectful manner in different settings using appropriate listening, verbal, nonverbal and written skills;
3.5.2. Demonstrate sensitivity, tolerance and respect for the values, dignity and abilities of diverse populations.

3.6. Communication (Communicator)

Effectively communicate verbally and nonverbally when interacting with an individual, group, or organization.

3.6.1. Effectively communicate with health care professionals in interdisciplinary relationships to assure safe, efficient, cost-effective utilization of human, physical, medical, informational and technological resources; 
3.6.2. Effectively convey, in oral and written form, biomedical and pharmaceutical science to inform patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals and the community.

Domain 4: Personal and Professional Development

4.1. Self-Awareness (Self-Aware)

Examine and reflect on personal knowledge, skills, abilities, beliefs, biases, motivation, and emotions that could enhance or limit personal and professional growth.

4.1.1. Set and assess personal and professional goals and priorities, effective planning and management of time, and organization of work;
4.1.2. Assure professional competence by assessing learning needs and designing, implementing and evaluating strategies to promote quality health care and career growth;
4.1.3. Commit to continuous professional development by maintaining and continually evaluating one's professional portfolio.

4.2. Leadership (Leader)

Demonstrate responsibility for creating and achieving shared goals, regardless of position.

4.2.1. Collaborate and support others to build a shared vision that unites members of a work team through mutual respect, responsiveness and empowerment.

4.3. Innovation and Entrepreneurship (Innovator)

Engage in innovative activities by using creative thinking to envision better ways of accomplishing professional goals.

4.3.1. Anticipate, adapt, and promote changes important to accomplishing the goals of the pharmacy profession in response to societal needs; 
4.3.2. Collaborate with members of the inter-professional health care team to identify novel solutions to emerging problems.

4.4. Professionalism (Professional)

Exhibit behaviors and values that are consistent with the trust given to the profession by patients, other healthcare providers, and society.

4.4.1. Demonstrate a personal and purposeful commitment to improving the pharmacy profession through interactions with other health professionals, professional memberships and participation in professional activities;
4.4.2. Demonstrate compassion, productivity and responsibility by serving in volunteer and community activities;
4.4.3. Rationalize ethical decisions that balance legal, ethical, social and economic concepts and principles in the delivery of patient centered care and the management of a pharmacy business;
4.4.4. Demonstrate an initiative and a willingness to take responsibility for one's patient, community and profession.

Students in P2, P3 and P4 Levels

Scientific Foundation

The student must comprehend scientific methods and understand important scientific principles in depth in order to be able to identify and solve problems related to drug therapies.

  • Concepts - Comprehend concepts of biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences.
  • Scientific Method - Explain the application of the scientific method in drug discovery, research, and practice.
  • Care Plans - Utilize concepts of biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences to design and evaluate patient-specific care plans that reduce side effects, increase adherence, and improve therapeutic outcomes.

Evidence-Based Practice and Critical Thinking

The student must be able to make decisions about drug therapy based upon best evidence from practice and the literature. Graduates should possess a set of critical thinking skills that enable them to best serve the interests of their patients and community.

  • Decision-making - Demonstrate a questioning attitude and justify therapeutic and practice decisions based on best research combined with clinical expertise and knowledge of patient and community needs and values.
  • Critical Inquiry - Demonstrate the ability to use critical inquiry to test ideas in familiar and unfamiliar circumstances.
  • Use of Literature - Retrieve, interpret, and challenge the professional, lay and scientific literature to make informed, rational and evidence-based decisions.
  • Data-driven Decisions - Utilize and select patient-specific data, population-specific data, quality assurance and research to optimize therapeutic outcomes and patient safety.

Professional Behavior and Ethics

Students must understand and accept responsibility for the care of their patients. They should have developed value systems to guide their actions and be willing to accept the consequences of their actions.

  • Patient Relationship - Demonstrate and support a professional, caring, and covenantal relationship with the patient.
  • Rational and Ethical Decisions - Make rational and ethical decisions while balancing legal, ethical, social, and economic concepts and principles in the delivery of patient centered care and the management of a pharmacy business.
  • Initiative and Responsibility - Demonstrate initiative and a willingness to take responsibility for one's patient, community and profession.
  • Sensitivity, Tolerance, and Respect - Demonstrate sensitivity, tolerance, and respect for the values, dignity, and abilities of the patient, caregivers, other healthcare professionals, and the community.

Communication and Collaboration

Students must be able to convey information so that it is received and understood. Competence in communication comes from mastering a set of communication skills that includes listening, attention to nonverbal language, empathy, speaking, and writing, and tailoring written and spoken messages to professional and lay audiences.

  • Counseling Skills - Select and tailor information to counsel and educate patients and caregivers from different cultures in a caring and respectful manner in different settings using appropriate listening, verbal, nonverbal, and written skills.
  • Professional Communication - Effectively communicate with healthcare professionals in interdisciplinary relationships to assure safe, efficient, cost-effective utilization of human, physical, medical, informational and technological resources.
  • Collaboration - Effectively collaborate with healthcare professionals, policymakers, administrative and support personnel to engender a team approach to patient-centered care.
  • Science Communication - Effectively convey in oral and written form biomedical and pharmaceutical science to inform patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals and the community.

Patient-Centered Care and Medication Use Management

The mission of the pharmacy profession has evolved from a product-centered to patient-centered practice. Students must be prepared to take responsibility for the outcomes of drug therapy by acquiring the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for entry level practice.

  • Care Plan Evaluation - Evaluate patient-specific and evidence-based pharmaceutical care plans.
  • Care Plan Design - Design a pharmaceutical care plan alone or in collaboration with other healthcare professionals, patients, and/or their caregivers and be able to defend the plan based on best evidence.
  • Medication Preparation & Dispensing - Compile and review patient-specific data on a medication profile, perform prospective drug use review with the introduction of a new medication to determine appropriateness, accurately prepare and dispense the medication, and document the patient counseling encounter.
  • Disease Management - Evaluate evidence based disease management programs and protocols which are based upon analysis of epidemiologic and pharmacoeconomic data, medication use criteria, medication use review and risk reduction strategies.

Personal Management and Leadership

Students must learn to be productive members of their profession who contribute to the improvement of the health of their patients and communities. They must be prepared to advance healthcare and the profession by defending systems that are effective and changing those that aren't.

  • Time Management - Set and assess personal and professional goals and priorities, effectively plan and manage time, and organize work.
  • Work Teams - Collaborate and support others to build a shared vision that unites members of a work team through mutual respect, responsiveness, and empowerment.

Systems Management

Students must learn to create and manage medication systems that provide the best possible outcomes for their patients. They must also learn to efficiently employ the resources needed to assure that patient and community needs are met.

  • Therapeutic Outcomes - Utilize management principles and healthcare resources in various healthcare settings to improve the therapeutic outcomes of medication use.
  • Budgeting - Evaluate and budget for pharmacy operations and personnel.
  • Resource Management - Optimize physical and technological resources to fulfill the practice mission.
  • Distribution of Medication - Manage and support medication distribution and control systems.
  • Medication Management - Participate in the management of medication use systems.

Public Health

Students must understand the system in which they practice and be willing to work to improve the health of individuals and communities.

  • Professional Collaboration - Collaborate with patients, communities, at-risk populations, and other stakeholders of the inter-professional healthcare team to prepare and participate in initiatives to identify and resolve public health problems.
  • Data-driven Needs Assessment - Interpret population-specific data to assess the health needs of a community or population.
  • Wellness and Disease Prevention - Develop and participate in wellness and disease prevention initiatives to improve health and reduce disparities in the delivery of healthcare.
  • Disease Prevention - Promote disease prevention and management across a continuum of care, and contribute to the development of rational and cost-effective health policy on a local, national and global level.

Service and Social Responsibility

Students must understand that service to patients and communities differentiates a profession from an occupation. In order to fulfill the mission of the profession students must learn to be willing to put the interests of others ahead of their own.

  • Commitment to Pharmacy - Demonstrate a personal and purposeful commitment to improving the pharmacy profession through interactions with other health professionals, professional memberships and participation in professional activities.
  • Community Involvement - Demonstrate compassion, productivity, and responsibility by serving in volunteer and community activities.

Lifelong Learning

Students must understand that practice is not static. They should learn to identify learning needs and resources to adapt to changes in healthcare and the profession.

  • Emerging Issues - Identify and analyze emerging issues, products, and services that may impact public health policies, individual and population-based therapeutic outcomes, medication use systems, and pharmacy benefits.
  • Implement Change - Anticipate, adapt to, and promote changes important to pharmacy's societal purpose.
  • Self-Improvement - Assure professional competence by assessing learning needs and designing, implementing, and evaluating strategies to promote quality healthcare and career growth.
  • Self-assessment - Commit to continuous professional development by maintaining and continually evaluating one's professional portfolio.

A Culture of Assessment at DYC SoP

Programmatic Assessment examines all aspects of the School of Pharmacy program to determine the extent to which our outcomes are being met and can indicate opportunities for improvement. This process is especially important since our students' education and experiences impact the quality of care they will eventually provide to their patients.

Programmatic Assessment

Educational assessment typically attempts to answer the questions such as:

  • What do we want our students to learn?
  • What are the educational and professional outcomes we want our students to achieve?
  • In what ways can we help our students achieve these outcomes?
  • How can we measure whether students have achieved these outcomes?
  • How do we know whether students have retained what they've learned?

Programmatic assessment reviews several factors within the program, such as student achievement, student services, student professionalism, teaching effectiveness, faculty development, and faculty and preceptor satisfaction.

Programmatic assessment typically attempts to answer the questions such as:

  • What outcomes are we meeting? Which ones are we not meeting?
  • How can the program be improved?
  • What are the relevant issues that can impact the program and student learning?

Why Do We Do Assessment?

In education, students are the driving force behind everything we do. Educators deliver information in a variety of ways to help students accomplish the skills they need to continue on their own career paths. Although on the surface, teaching and learning are taking place, we have a responsibility to ensure that the quality of the education we are providing meets our own expectations as well as the expectations of our students. With assessment, we can feel more confident that students are graduating with proficient skills and have truly earned their degrees. 

Assessment of Academic Programs at D'Youville College

Assessment of academic programs at D’Youville College occurs in three inter-related stages:

  1. Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes – Assessment of student learning outcomes occurs on an annual basis. Reports are submitted to the Office of the VPAA no later than June 30th of each year, beginning in the 2007-2008 academic year.
  2. Academic Program Review (formerly Systematic Academic Program Review) –Coupled with the Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes annual review, the academic program review covers all areas previously required in the SAPRs but in abridged form. This will make review and utilization of results more efficient. The Academic Program Review is submitted to the Office of the VPAA every five years. Please see the attached schedule for dates of submission for undergraduate programs and for graduate and professional programs.
  3. Accreditation Review – A number of programs (business, chiropractic, education, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and physician assistant) are governed by accrediting bodies. Accreditation is a process by which an institution or disciplinary unit within an institution periodically evaluates its work and seeks a judgment by the accrediting body that it achieves its own educational objectives, state regulations, and the established standards of the body from which it seeks accreditation. Typically, the accreditation process includes 1) a self-evaluative description (self-study) of the institution or unit, 2) an on-site review by a team of evaluators, and 3) judgment by an accreditation decision-making body, normally called a Standards Board or Review Committee. Accreditation reviews focus on educational quality, institutional integrity, and educational improvements. The accrediting agency has its own established time line for review, typically a 7-10 year cycle depending upon the accreditation body and the accreditation status of the program.

Although each of these forms of assessment differ from each other, there are important overlaps. The most important of these is that evidence gleaned from any type of assessment can provide valuable input for any future assessments.

Professional Development Framework

In order to master the school's educational outcomes, student pharmacists will pass through a number of developmental stages. The goal in professional education is not merely to obtain a passing grade or to compare one's performance with the performance of others (as when grading is done on a curve). Rather, the goal is to attain a level of proficiency that allows one to apply knowledge and skills automatically and effectively as a practitioner in real world situations. Such proficiency, however, does not occur instantaneously. Listed below are several key stages that learners typically experience as they work toward development of professional mastery. These stages have been developed by the school's faculty after careful review of the literature describing the development of professional expertise.

Non-Readiness (Unaware Incompetence)

Most commonly, student pharmacists may have the necessary prerequisites to begin learning a new skill or acquiring new knowledge but might be unaware of the particular skills or knowledge that must be applied by the practitioner in real world situations. In some cases, students will be aware of the knowledge or skill, but have little interest in acquiring it or may indicate a vague willingness to learn in the future. They may consider the knowledge or principles related to a skill as "common sense" or "common knowledge", but do not recognize the steps involved to becoming effective in practice. Often what is "common sense" is not "common practice." In order to acquire new knowledge and develop the skill, students must become aware of what they do not know and be open to learning.

EXAMPLE: Team work is a good example of a skill area that many students in the healthcare professions see as "common sense." Often these students are so focused on the mastery of scientific information and individual clinical skills that they devalue the significance of learning team-work skills. The reality is that most experienced professionals do not practice alone. They work with and supervise technical support staff (technicians) and interact daily with other healthcare practitioners

Novice (Aware Incompetence)

In this phase, learners have the necessary prerequisites to begin learning a new skill or acquiring new knowledge. While they may continue to be unaware of the particular skills or knowledge that must be applied by the practitioner in real world situations, learners indicate an interest and willingness to develop the necessary skills and knowledge. They may have work experience though often cannot see how professional knowledge and skills contribute to professional competence. Learners who reach this stage begin acquiring new knowledge and skills within a structured framework. They are expected to be able to recall the knowledge presented in class but lack the ability to apply theoretical principles. They can however imitate some of the skills they observe during their clinical experience.

EXAMPLE: In order to be admitted to pharmacy school, students complete courses in algebra, trigonometry, and calculus in high school or college. Most have earned high marks in these courses. However, many students are unable to apply previously learned math concepts to solve simple problems that practicing pharmacists and scientists face in everyday practice. At this point, students realize that, although they have the basic knowledge and skills and the willingness to solve the problems, they lack the expertise to apply the skills in practice. Students in this phase are expected to observe experienced practitioners at their clinical sites in the hope that students will copy effective behaviors and skills and avoid ineffective behaviors. They may for example, observe a practitioner who calms an angry patient then attempt to imitate and repeat the observed patient interaction.

Advanced Novice

Learners in this stage comprehend objective facts, initial concepts, and specific rules and are able to apply them within a discipline or in structured settings but may struggle to apply them to real world situations. Learners may be comfortable solving routine well-defined problems but may be ineffective and inefficient in manipulating knowledge in unfamiliar settings or in solving ill-defined problems. Because the skills required to do so are unfamiliar to them, they may not be aware of specific mistakes made. Therefore considerable coaching and redirection may be needed to help them to correct mistakes. Students in this stage lack confidence in their ability and knowledge base and often require specific instructions or rules and may bring along "cheat sheets" and scripts to help them practice skills and solve problems. Their "rule-governed behavior" in the clinical setting limits their ability to address complex problems. Generally, students are aware that considerable knowledge and practice is required to become an expert practitioner and through practice and repetition they strive to become more efficient and precise when solving problems.

EXAMPLE: In pharmacy education, laboratories, simulations and training aids are often used to help student pharmacists apply knowledge and put theory into practice. Students learn "the basics" in class but struggle to apply what was covered in class to a real world setting. While practicing the skills needed to apply knowledge, learners may feel the need to have a script or notes handy in order to make sure that the steps needed to perform the skill are correct. For example, student pharmacists practice medication history taking early in the curriculum. In most cases, students bring along a script or "cheat sheet" to make sure that all of the information needed to complete the history is collected. Because students in this phase require the assurance of instructions and scripts they often complete tasks slowly and inefficiently.

Beginning Proficiency

Learners in this phase continue to practice using their knowledge and skills and may attempt to do so with or without supervision. Mistakes are less frequent and individuals are generally able to recognize and correct mistakes. Supervision can be provided at check points and is generally used to refine acquisition of knowledge and performance of skills rather than correct major mistakes. In this stage learners are taught more sophisticated rules and can recognize facts and elements important to the field independent of their classes. They begin to use their knowledge automatically and routinely to analyze problems and develop solutions. Their grasp on principles is strengthened through practice in class and clinical settings. Learners are more consciously aware of how their actions may lead to long-range goals or plans. At this stage they can recognize knowledge and skill deficits through reflection/introspection and can independently seek the necessary resources to address the deficiencies. Through practice and repetition they develop confidence in their ability to solve well-defined problems. Learners may be efficient in completing routine tasks but inefficient in solving ill-defined problems.

EXAMPLE: In pharmacy education, supervised clinical or laboratory training (e.g., experiential learning, clerkships, summer research programs, and internships) and involvement in student professional organizations are often used to further learning during this phase. Students develop confidence and ability as they develop proficiency in acquiring information to practice the required skills. Through repetition and practice, students learn to correct mistakes and are able to reflect and learn from their performance. For example, students who work in a research laboratory may learn to perform analytical procedures efficiently and reliably through practice, repetition, and feedback from their supervisor. At first they may require close supervision but eventually may be able to perform procedures independently in the laboratory.

Proficient (Aware Competence)

Learners in this stage have achieved a high degree of proficiency in the acquisition of knowledge and application of skills and are consistently able to meet specified performance criteria. Learners have developed a "working knowledge" of theory and are able to accurately provide evidence when applying principles to unstructured settings. In this stage student pharmacists can use their clinical and scientific expertise to articulate evidence-based recommendations. Consistency in performance distinguishes this phase from the previous phase; supervision is minimal and preceptors and supervisors may treat the student more like a co-worker than student. The learner may seek feedback from preceptors and instructors to refine fine points of performance rather than correct major errors. Learners are aware of, and capable of, defining their knowledge and skill deficits and can acquire new knowledge and skills outside of the classroom. Student pharmacists at this stage of development are capable of solving ill-defined problems based on knowledge gained and may be able to demonstrate basic skills to less experienced learners. Learners are consciously aimed at applying "the correct" skills and knowledge to problems preferring tried and true methods rather than novel solutions. Self-confidence characterizes this stage.

EXAMPLE: In pharmacy education, students demonstrate the ability to use practice skills and solve drug-related problems during supervised clinical clerkships. Some schools utilize patient simulators (actors), paper and pencil competency examinations, or structured clinical exams (OSCEs) to determine whether students have reached this stage of professional development. Successful completion of the NAPLEX and MJPE exams is the mechanism through which students demonstrate their proficiency. If the student fails to pass the exam, then they continue in the competent phase.

Expert (Unaware Competence)

Learners have met the necessary performance criteria and are flexible in their approach to solving problems in the field. Experience plays a large role in recognizing problems and developing solutions. The practitioner is concerned about continuing professional development and seeks opportunities to hone old skills and learn new ones. Reflection comes naturally and experts solve problems almost unconsciously. "Experts" adopt a contextual approach to problem solving and understand the relative, non-absolute nature of knowledge. This ability distinguishes the "expert" from the "proficient" practitioner. The expert is aware that theories reflect a particular perspective and hence understand the relativity of knowledge. The expert solves problems by continuously creating new principles based on the changing circumstances of their lives rather than applying a set of absolute principles or standards across all contexts and circumstances. Experts are "problem finders". They are able to generate new problems by examining situations from novel and creative points of view.

Mastery of a skill in a classroom situation is not the same as mastery of a skill in a practice setting. It is not unusual for learners to reach mastery in the classroom, but function at a competent level in the real world. This apparent "regression" often occurs because skills are often taught in isolation in the classroom, but must often be used in conjunction with several other skills in practice. Knowing what information is needed and which skills to integrate and having them mesh smoothly differentiates the expert from the novice. Novice professionals who keep this dynamic interaction in mind can become more proactive in their learning by asking questions, seeking feedback, or arranging for additional instruction.

EXAMPLE: The case example cited below is a great example of this level of mastery: Chisholm CD, Croskerry C: A case study in medical error: The use of the portfolio entry. Acad Emerg Med 2004; 11:388-392.

This handout was originally prepared by Maria Piantanida, Ph.D. based on a document, "A Mastery Model of Evaluation as a Strategy for Developing Professional Teaching Competencies,", revised by a University of Pittsburgh student/faculty task force (2006), and adapted for use at D'Youville College by incorporating Doggett's Rigor-Relevance Framework, elements of Bloom's taxonomy, and theories on the development of competency.

Assessment timeline

The following timelines present the programmatic assessments conducted on a regular basis. They include assessments being completed by PharmD students, faculty members, preceptors, and administrators. In later years, they will also include graduate students and alumni. A detailed description of the purpose and the individuals responsible for implementation and analyzing and reporting results for each assessment is listed in alphabetical order further down on this same page.

Assessment Timeline

PPEEP=Pharmacy Practice Experience Evaluations - Preceptors
PPEES=Pharmacy Practice Experience Evaluations - Students
OSCEs=Objective Structured Clinical Examinations
SSS=Student Satisfaction Surveys

AACP Faculty Survey

Purpose: to gather faculty perceptions about PharmD curriculum quality and to compare DYCSoP data from this survey with data from peer institutions

  • Frequency: every year
  • Completed by: Faculty Members
  • Manager: Assessment Committee
  • Responsible Individual: Director of Assessment

AACP Preceptor Survey

Purpose: to gather perceptions about curriculum quality from preceptors who had supervised at least one PharmD student during the last academic year and to compare DYCSoP data from this survey with data from peer institutions

  • Frequency: every year
  • Completed by: Preceptors
  • Manager: Assessment Committee
  • Responsible Individuals: Assistant Dean for Experiential Education, Director of Assessment

E-Portfolios and Student Self-Assessments of Competencies

Purpose: to document and track students' achievement of the CAPE Educational Outcomes and personal and professional development by identifying and working towards their own academic and career goals, selecting artifacts of key learning experiences during the PharmD program, and practicing self-reflection to evaluate their own learning. Also, to track students' self-reported level of competency in each of the CAPE Educational Outcomes over time

  • Frequency: every semester
  • Completed by: PharmD Students
  • Manager: Assessment Committee
  • Responsible Individuals: Assessment Director, Faculty Advisors (administrators, faculty members, and preceptors who provide guidance and feedback to students on a longitudinal basis.)

Focus Groups

Purpose: to collect qualitative data from small groups of students through discussion on various aspects of the School of Pharmacy

  • Frequency: every year or as needed
  • Completed by: PharmD Students
  • Manager: Assessment Committee
  • Responsible Individuals: Director of Assessment

Pharmacy Practice Experience Evaluations-Preceptors (PPEEP)

Purpose: to serve as a mechanism for preceptors to assess students' knowledge, skills, and abilities during pharmacy practice experiences (rotations) and for students to conduct their own self-assessments against the same criteria

  • Frequency: every rotation
  • Completed by: Preceptors
  • Manager: Assessment Committee
  • Responsible Individuals: Director of Experiential Education

Pharmacy Practice Experience Evaluations-Students (PPEES)

Purpose: to serve as a mechanism for students to conduct their own self-assessments of their pharmacy practice experiences (rotations) [Includes Reflections]

  • Frequency: every rotation
  • Completed by: PharmD Students
  • Manager: Assessment Committee
  • Responsible Individual: Director of Experiential Education

Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs)

Purpose: to assess students' retention of knowledge, skills and attitudes from required coursework at the end of each semester in the PharmD curriculum. The OSCEs are formative (i.e., low-stakes) in nature and therefore serve as diagnostic tools to determine students' strengths and deficiencies in different courses.

  • Frequency: end of each semester
  • Completed by: PharmD Students
  • Manager: Curriculum Committee and Assessment Committee
  • Responsible Individuals: Chair, Curriculum Committee and Director of Assessment

Peer Evaluations

Purpose: to provide faculty with a structured process for peer assessment of teaching to support faculty development

  • Frequency: as needed
  • Completed by: Faculty Members
  • Manager: Department Chairs
  • Responsible Individuals: Individual Faculty Members

Student Satisfaction Surveys

Purpose: to provide the instructor with feedback on his/her teaching performance in a course, to allow statistical analyses concerning instruction in school as a whole, and to provide students

  • Frequency: every semester
  • Completed by: PharmD Students
  • Manager: Academic Computing
  • Responsible Individuals: Faculty Members