Educational outcomes describe career and professional accomplishments that the program prepares graduates to achieve.
For the Pharm.D. program, the outcomes are as follows:
- Scientific Foundation
- Evidence-Based Practice and Critical Thinking
- Professional Behavior and Ethics
- Communication and Collaboration
- Patient-Centered Care and Medication Use Management
- Personal Management and Leadership
- Systems Management
- Public Health
- Service and Social Responsibility
- Lifelong Learning
The student must comprehend scientific methods and understand important scientific principles in depth in order to be able to identify and solve problems related to drug therapies.
- Concepts - Comprehend concepts of biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences.
- Scientific Method - Explain the application of the scientific method in drug discovery, research, and practice.
- Care Plans - Utilize concepts of biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences to design and evaluate patient-specific care plans that reduce side effects, increase adherence, and improve therapeutic outcomes.
The student must be able to make decisions about drug therapy based upon best evidence from practice and the literature. Graduates should possess a set of critical thinking skills that enable them to best serve the interests of their patients and community.
- Decision-making - Demonstrate a questioning attitude and justify therapeutic and practice decisions based on best research combined with clinical expertise and knowledge of patient and community needs and values.
- Critical Inquiry - Demonstrate the ability to use critical inquiry to test ideas in familiar and unfamiliar circumstances.
- Use of Literature - Retrieve, interpret, and challenge the professional, lay and scientific literature to make informed, rational and evidence-based decisions.
- Data-driven Decisions - Utilize and select patient-specific data, population-specific data, quality assurance and research to optimize therapeutic outcomes and patient safety.
Students must understand and accept responsibility for the care of their patients. They should have developed value systems to guide their actions and be willing to accept the consequences of their actions.
- Patient Relationship - Demonstrate and support a professional, caring, and covenantal relationship with the patient.
- Rational and Ethical Decisions - Make rational and ethical decisions while balancing legal, ethical, social, and economic concepts and principles in the delivery of patient centered care and the management of a pharmacy business.
- Initiative and Responsibility - Demonstrate initiative and a willingness to take responsibility for one's patient, community and profession.
- Sensitivity, Tolerance, and Respect - Demonstrate sensitivity, tolerance, and respect for the values, dignity, and abilities of the patient, caregivers, other health care professionals, and the community.
Students must be able to convey information so that it is received and understood. Competence in communication comes from mastering a set of communication skills that includes listening, attention to nonverbal language, empathy, speaking, and writing, and tailoring written and spoken messages to professional and lay audiences.
- Counseling Skills - Select and tailor information to counsel and educate patients and caregivers from different cultures in a caring and respectful manner in different settings using appropriate listening, verbal, nonverbal, and written skills.
- Professional Communication - Effectively communicate with health care professionals in interdisciplinary relationships to assure safe, efficient, cost-effective utilization of human, physical, medical, informational and technological resources.
- Collaboration - Effectively collaborate with health care professionals, policymakers, administrative and support personnel to engender a team approach to patient-centered care.
- Science Communication - Effectively convey in oral and written form biomedical and pharmaceutical science to inform patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals and the community.
The mission of the pharmacy profession has evolved from a product-centered to patient-centered practice. Students must be prepared to take responsibility for the outcomes of drug therapy by acquiring the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for entry level practice.
- Care Plan Evaluation - Evaluate patient-specific and evidence-based pharmaceutical care plans.
- Care Plan Design - Design a pharmaceutical care plan alone or in collaboration with other health care professionals, patients, and/or their caregivers and be able to defend the plan based on best evidence.
- Medication Preparation & Dispensing - Compile and review patient-specific data on a medication profile, perform prospective drug use review with the introduction of a new medication to determine appropriateness, accurately prepare and dispense the medication, and document the patient counseling encounter.
- Disease Management - Evaluate evidence based disease management programs and protocols which are based upon analysis of epidemiologic and pharmacoeconomic data, medication use criteria, medication use review and risk reduction strategies.
Students must learn to be productive members of their profession who contribute to the improvement of the health of their patients and communities. They must be prepared to advance health care and the profession by defending systems that are effective and changing those that aren't.
- Time Management - Set and assess personal and professional goals and priorities, effectively plan and manage time, and organize work.
- Work Teams - Collaborate and support others to build a shared vision that unites members of a work team through mutual respect, responsiveness, and empowerment.
Students must learn to create and manage medication systems that provide the best possible outcomes for their patients. They must also learn to efficiently employ the resources needed to assure that patient and community needs are met.
- Therapeutic Outcomes - Utilize management principles and health care resources in various health care settings to improve the therapeutic outcomes of medication use.
- Budgeting - Evaluate and budget for pharmacy operations and personnel.
- Resource Management - Optimize physical and technological resources to fulfill the practice mission.
- Distribution of Medication - Manage and support medication distribution and control systems.
- Medication Management - Participate in the management of medication use systems.
Students must understand the system in which they practice and be willing to work to improve the health of individuals and communities.
- Professional Collaboration - Collaborate with patients, communities, at-risk populations, and other stakeholders of the inter-professional health care team to prepare and participate in initiatives to identify and resolve public health problems.
- Data-driven Needs Assessment - Interpret population-specific data to assess the health needs of a community or population.
- Wellness and Disease Prevention - Develop and participate in wellness and disease prevention initiatives to improve health and reduce disparities in the delivery of healthcare.
- Disease Prevention - Promote disease prevention and management across a continuum of care, and contribute to the development of rational and cost-effective health policy on a local, national and global level.
Students must understand that service to patients and communities differentiates a profession from an occupation. In order to fulfill the mission of the profession students must learn to be willing to put the interests of others ahead of their own.
- Commitment to Pharmacy - Demonstrate a personal and purposeful commitment to improving the pharmacy profession through interactions with other health professionals, professional memberships and participation in professional activities.
- Community Involvement - Demonstrate compassion, productivity, and responsibility by serving in volunteer and community activities.
Students must understand that practice is not static. They should learn to identify learning needs and resources to adapt to changes in health care and the profession.
- Emerging Issues - Identify and analyze emerging issues, products, and services that may impact public health policies, individual and population-based therapeutic outcomes, medication use systems, and pharmacy benefits.
- Implement Change - Anticipate, adapt to, and promote changes important to pharmacy's societal purpose.
- Self-Improvement - Assure professional competence by assessing learning needs and designing, implementing, and evaluating strategies to promote quality health care and career growth.
- Self-assessment - Commit to continuous professional development by maintaining and continually evaluating one's professional portfolio.