Educational Outcomes

Educational outcomes describe career and professional accomplishments that the program prepares graduates to achieve.

Students in P1 Level

For the PharmD program, the outcomes are as follows:

 Domain 1: Foundational Knowledge

1.1 Learner (Learner) - Develop, integrate, and apply knowledge from the foundational sciences (i.e., pharmaceutical, social/behavioral/administrative, and clinical sciences) to evaluate the scientific literature, explain drug action, solve therapeutic problems, and advance population health and patient centered care.

  • 1.1.1. Comprehend concepts of biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences;
  • 1.1.2. Explain the application of the scientific method in drug discovery, research and practice;
  • 1.1.3. Utilize concepts of biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences to design and evaluate patient-specific care plans that reduce side effects, increase adherence and improve therapeutic outcomes.

 Domain 2: Essentials for Practice and Care

2.1. Patient-Centered Care (Caregiver)

Provide patient-centered care as the medication expert (collect and interpret evidence, prioritize, formulate assessments and recommendations, implement, monitor and adjust plans, and document activities).

  • 2.1.1. Evaluate patient-specific and evidence-based pharmaceutical care plans;
  • 2.1.2. Design a pharmaceutical care plan alone or in collaboration with other health care professionals, patients and/or their caregivers and defense of the plan based on best evidence;
  • 2.1.3. Compile and review patient-specific data on a medication profile, performance of prospective drug use review with the introduction of a new medication to determine appropriateness, accurate preparation and dispensing of the medication, and documentation of the patient counseling encounter.

2.2. Medication Use Systems Management (Manager)

Manage patient healthcare needs using human, financial, technological, and physical resources to optimize the safety and efficacy of medication use systems.

  • 2.2.1. Utilize management principles and health care resources in various health care settings to improve the therapeutic outcomes of medication use;
  • 2.2.2. Evaluate and budget for pharmacy operations and personnel;
  • 2.2.3. Optimize physical and technological resources to fulfill the practice mission;
  • 2.2.4. Manage and support medication distribution and control systems;
  • 2.2.5. Participate in the management of medication use systems.

2.3. Health and Wellness (Promoter)

Design prevention, intervention, and educational strategies for individuals and communities to manage chronic disease and improve health and wellness.

  • 2.3.1. Develop and participate in wellness and disease prevention initiatives to improve health and reduce disparities in the delivery of healthcare;
  • 2.3.2. Promote disease prevention and management across a continuum of care, and contribution to the development of rational and cost-effective health policy on a local, national and global level.

2.4. Population-based care (Provider)

Describe how population-based care influences patient centered care and influences the development of practice guidelines and evidence-based best practices.

  • 2.4.1. Evaluate evidence-based disease management programs and protocols which are based upon analysis of epidemiologic and pharmacoeconomic data, medication use criteria, medication use review and risk reduction strategies;
  • 2.4.2. Interpret population-specific data to assess the health needs of a community or population;
  • 2.4.3. Utilize and select patient-specific data, population-specific data, quality assurance and research to optimize therapeutic outcomes and patient safety.

 Domain 3: Approach to Practice and Care

3.1. Problem Solving (Problem Solver)

Identify problems; explore and prioritize potential strategies; and design, implement, and evaluate a viable solution.

  • 3.1.1. Demonstrate a questioning attitude and justify therapeutic and practice decisions based on best research combined with clinical expertise and knowledge of patient and community needs and values; 
  • 3.1.2. Demonstrate the ability to use critical inquiry to test ideas in familiar and unfamiliar circumstances;
  • 3.1.3. Retrieve, interpret and challenge the professional, lay and scientific literature to make informed, rational and evidence-based decisions.

3.2. Educator (Educator)

Educate all audiences by determining the most effective and enduring ways to impart information and assess understanding.

  • 3.2.1. Educate and validate patient, caregiver, and health care professional understanding.

3.3. Patient Advocacy (Advocate)

Assure that patients' best interests are represented.

  • 3.3.1. Demonstrate and support a professional, caring and covenantal relationship with the patient; 
  • 3.3.2. Encourage patients and caregivers to take responsibility of their own health care needs.

3.4. Interprofessional Collaboration (Collaborator)

Actively participate and engage as a healthcare team member by demonstrating mutual respect, understanding, and values to meet patient care needs.

  • 3.4.1. Effectively collaborate with health care professionals, policymakers, administrative and support personnel to engender a team approach to patient-centered care.

3.5. Cultural Sensitivity (Includer)

Recognize social determinants of health to diminish disparities and inequities in access to quality care.

  • 3.5.1. Select and tailor information to counsel and educate patients and caregivers from different cultures in a caring and respectful manner in different settings using appropriate listening, verbal, nonverbal and written skills;
  • 3.5.2. Demonstrate sensitivity, tolerance and respect for the values, dignity and abilities of diverse populations.

3.6. Communication (Communicator)

Effectively communicate verbally and nonverbally when interacting with an individual, group, or organization.

  • 3.6.1. Effectively communicate with health care professionals in interdisciplinary relationships to assure safe, efficient, cost-effective utilization of human, physical, medical, informational and technological resources; 
  • 3.6.2. Effectively convey, in oral and written form, biomedical and pharmaceutical science to inform patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals and the community.

 Domain 4: Personal and Professional Development

4.1. Self-Awareness (Self-Aware)

Examine and reflect on personal knowledge, skills, abilities, beliefs, biases, motivation, and emotions that could enhance or limit personal and professional growth.

  • 4.1.1. Set and assess personal and professional goals and priorities, effective planning and management of time, and organization of work;
  • 4.1.2. Assure professional competence by assessing learning needs and designing, implementing and evaluating strategies to promote quality health care and career growth;
  • 4.1.3. Commit to continuous professional development by maintaining and continually evaluating one's professional portfolio.

4.2. Leadership (Leader)

Demonstrate responsibility for creating and achieving shared goals, regardless of position.

  • 4.2.1. Collaborate and support others to build a shared vision that unites members of a work team through mutual respect, responsiveness and empowerment.

4.3. Innovation and Entrepreneurship (Innovator)

Engage in innovative activities by using creative thinking to envision better ways of accomplishing professional goals.

  • 4.3.1. Anticipate, adapt, and promote changes important to accomplishing the goals of the pharmacy profession in response to societal needs; 
  • 4.3.2. Collaborate with members of the inter-professional health care team to identify novel solutions to emerging problems.

4.4. Professionalism (Professional)

Exhibit behaviors and values that are consistent with the trust given to the profession by patients, other healthcare providers, and society.

  • 4.4.1. Demonstrate a personal and purposeful commitment to improving the pharmacy profession through interactions with other health professionals, professional memberships and participation in professional activities;
  • 4.4.2. Demonstrate compassion, productivity and responsibility by serving in volunteer and community activities;
  • 4.4.3. Rationalize ethical decisions that balance legal, ethical, social and economic concepts and principles in the delivery of patient centered care and the management of a pharmacy business;
  • 4.4.4. Demonstrate an initiative and a willingness to take responsibility for one's patient, community and profession.

Students in P2, P3 and P4 Levels

For the PharmD program, the outcomes are as follows:

Scientific Foundation

The student must comprehend scientific methods and understand important scientific principles in depth in order to be able to identify and solve problems related to drug therapies.

  • Concepts - Comprehend concepts of biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences.
  • Scientific Method - Explain the application of the scientific method in drug discovery, research, and practice.
  • Care Plans - Utilize concepts of biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences to design and evaluate patient-specific care plans that reduce side effects, increase adherence, and improve therapeutic outcomes.

Evidence-Based Practice and Critical Thinking

The student must be able to make decisions about drug therapy based upon best evidence from practice and the literature. Graduates should possess a set of critical thinking skills that enable them to best serve the interests of their patients and community.

  • Decision-making - Demonstrate a questioning attitude and justify therapeutic and practice decisions based on best research combined with clinical expertise and knowledge of patient and community needs and values.
  • Critical Inquiry - Demonstrate the ability to use critical inquiry to test ideas in familiar and unfamiliar circumstances.
  • Use of Literature - Retrieve, interpret, and challenge the professional, lay and scientific literature to make informed, rational and evidence-based decisions.
  • Data-driven Decisions - Utilize and select patient-specific data, population-specific data, quality assurance and research to optimize therapeutic outcomes and patient safety.

Professional Behavior and Ethics

Students must understand and accept responsibility for the care of their patients. They should have developed value systems to guide their actions and be willing to accept the consequences of their actions.

  • Patient Relationship - Demonstrate and support a professional, caring, and covenantal relationship with the patient.
  • Rational and Ethical Decisions - Make rational and ethical decisions while balancing legal, ethical, social, and economic concepts and principles in the delivery of patient centered care and the management of a pharmacy business.
  • Initiative and Responsibility - Demonstrate initiative and a willingness to take responsibility for one's patient, community and profession.
  • Sensitivity, Tolerance, and Respect - Demonstrate sensitivity, tolerance, and respect for the values, dignity, and abilities of the patient, caregivers, other healthcare professionals, and the community.

Communication and Collaboration

Students must be able to convey information so that it is received and understood. Competence in communication comes from mastering a set of communication skills that includes listening, attention to nonverbal language, empathy, speaking, and writing, and tailoring written and spoken messages to professional and lay audiences.

  • Counseling Skills - Select and tailor information to counsel and educate patients and caregivers from different cultures in a caring and respectful manner in different settings using appropriate listening, verbal, nonverbal, and written skills.
  • Professional Communication - Effectively communicate with healthcare professionals in interdisciplinary relationships to assure safe, efficient, cost-effective utilization of human, physical, medical, informational and technological resources.
  • Collaboration - Effectively collaborate with healthcare professionals, policymakers, administrative and support personnel to engender a team approach to patient-centered care.
  • Science Communication - Effectively convey in oral and written form biomedical and pharmaceutical science to inform patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals and the community.

Patient-Centered Care and Medication Use Management

The mission of the pharmacy profession has evolved from a product-centered to patient-centered practice. Students must be prepared to take responsibility for the outcomes of drug therapy by acquiring the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for entry level practice.

  • Care Plan Evaluation - Evaluate patient-specific and evidence-based pharmaceutical care plans.
  • Care Plan Design - Design a pharmaceutical care plan alone or in collaboration with other healthcare professionals, patients, and/or their caregivers and be able to defend the plan based on best evidence.
  • Medication Preparation & Dispensing - Compile and review patient-specific data on a medication profile, perform prospective drug use review with the introduction of a new medication to determine appropriateness, accurately prepare and dispense the medication, and document the patient counseling encounter.
  • Disease Management - Evaluate evidence based disease management programs and protocols which are based upon analysis of epidemiologic and pharmacoeconomic data, medication use criteria, medication use review and risk reduction strategies.

Personal Management and Leadership

Students must learn to be productive members of their profession who contribute to the improvement of the health of their patients and communities. They must be prepared to advance healthcare and the profession by defending systems that are effective and changing those that aren't.

  • Time Management - Set and assess personal and professional goals and priorities, effectively plan and manage time, and organize work.
  • Work Teams - Collaborate and support others to build a shared vision that unites members of a work team through mutual respect, responsiveness, and empowerment.

Systems Management

Students must learn to create and manage medication systems that provide the best possible outcomes for their patients. They must also learn to efficiently employ the resources needed to assure that patient and community needs are met.

  • Therapeutic Outcomes - Utilize management principles and healthcare resources in various healthcare settings to improve the therapeutic outcomes of medication use.
  • Budgeting - Evaluate and budget for pharmacy operations and personnel.
  • Resource Management - Optimize physical and technological resources to fulfill the practice mission.
  • Distribution of Medication - Manage and support medication distribution and control systems.
  • Medication Management - Participate in the management of medication use systems.

Public Health

Students must understand the system in which they practice and be willing to work to improve the health of individuals and communities.

  • Professional Collaboration - Collaborate with patients, communities, at-risk populations, and other stakeholders of the inter-professional healthcare team to prepare and participate in initiatives to identify and resolve public health problems.
  • Data-driven Needs Assessment - Interpret population-specific data to assess the health needs of a community or population.
  • Wellness and Disease Prevention - Develop and participate in wellness and disease prevention initiatives to improve health and reduce disparities in the delivery of healthcare.
  • Disease Prevention - Promote disease prevention and management across a continuum of care, and contribute to the development of rational and cost-effective health policy on a local, national and global level.

Service and Social Responsibility

Students must understand that service to patients and communities differentiates a profession from an occupation. In order to fulfill the mission of the profession students must learn to be willing to put the interests of others ahead of their own.

  • Commitment to Pharmacy - Demonstrate a personal and purposeful commitment to improving the pharmacy profession through interactions with other health professionals, professional memberships and participation in professional activities.
  • Community Involvement - Demonstrate compassion, productivity, and responsibility by serving in volunteer and community activities.

Lifelong Learning

Students must understand that practice is not static. They should learn to identify learning needs and resources to adapt to changes in healthcare and the profession.

  • Emerging Issues - Identify and analyze emerging issues, products, and services that may impact public health policies, individual and population-based therapeutic outcomes, medication use systems, and pharmacy benefits.
  • Implement Change - Anticipate, adapt to, and promote changes important to pharmacy's societal purpose.
  • Self-Improvement - Assure professional competence by assessing learning needs and designing, implementing, and evaluating strategies to promote quality healthcare and career growth.
  • Self-assessment - Commit to continuous professional development by maintaining and continually evaluating one's professional portfolio.

Student Outcomes

D'Youville PharmD graduates achieve excellent scores on national and state licensing exams. For our most recent graduates:

NAPLEX Pass Rate

The NAPLEX, or North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination, measures a candidate's knowledge of the practice of pharmacy.

  • Pass Rate (2015): 90.38% (National average is 93.86%)
  • Pass Rate (2014): 95.61% (National average is 95.61%)

D'Youville average pass rate: 93.15%

MPJE Pass Rate

The Multistate Pharmacy Jurisprudence Examination serves as the pharmacy law examination in participating jurisdictions.

  • Pass Rate (2015): 94.12% (National Average is 93.97%)
  • Pass Rate (2014): 100% (National A verage is 90.87%)

D'Youville average pass rate: 97.06%

Part 3 Compounding

  • June 2015: 89% (State average 73%)

Job Placement Rate

  • D'Youville College Class of 2014: 98%
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